Mix Issues – Prevention Rather than Cure

Thanks to the rapid development of DAWs and plug-ins over the last 5-10 years, as producers we have close to unlimited flexibility in terms of audio processing.  Even my very old (7+ years) music PC is capable of running 10’s to 100’s of simultaneous plugins in a track’s project.  Added to this, the internal digital routing in a DAW, and the ever-increasing quality of plugins, means chains of 10’s of plugins are not only a reality but often the norm in putting together a track.

But with this flexibility can come a complacence to ‘fix problems later’ with plugins, rather than dealing with them at the source.  I’ve read numerous interviews with pro producers who emphasise the importance of getting sound right in the first instance… particularly with things like tracking… finding good sound through good mic selection and placement, rather than fixing it with EQ in the mix.  Yet, it can be easy to forget or ignore this advice given how simple it is to throw extra plugins in an effect chain.

While writing ‘Dystopia‘, I came into this kind of situation… a problem which could have been fixed by additional tweaking, or extra layers of compression… but which actually had a simple, and probably ultimately better sounding solution at the source.

The track has the following background percussion pattern in various sections…

Within an 8 beat phrase, the first percussion ‘hit’ occurs on the third 16th beat, and has a quieter and lower pitched ‘grace note’ a 16th before that.  The below screen shot shows the MIDI sequence for the pattern, with the grace notes highlighted…

mix-issues-prevention-rather-than-cure-1

At the point of final mixdown and applying bus compression, I noticed that there were occasional waveform spikes at the points of these grace notes… the highlighted peaks on the below waveform show an example…

mix-issues-prevention-rather-than-cure-2

These spikes were not only quite strong (almost hitting 0dB), but occurred on a rhythmically odd (syncopated) beat of the bar… i.e. the second 8th beat of the bar… at the same point as the offbeat hi-hat sound.  When I was trying to apply compression, the strength and syncopation of these spikes were causing the same type of uneven, pumping compression I mentioned in my second bus compression article.  The problem could have been cured at the final mix stage by potentially applying a limiter or a fast acting compressor at the start of the effect chain.  But instead, I went back to the MIDI sequencing and took at look at the part itself.  Considering the note at the second 8th beat was just a grace note, and that it occurred on the same beat as a rhythmically far more important part (i.e. the offbeat hi-hat), the MIDI velocity of that note seemed quite high (at around 81).  Hence, I tried simply reducing the velocity of the grace note to about 70 as per the below screen shot…

mix-issues-prevention-rather-than-cure-3

…and this simple change benefited the mix in 3 ways…

  • It left more room for the offbeat hi-hat, and hence made the hi-hat clearer.
  • It wasn’t in any way detrimental to the in-context sound of the percussion part (actually, I think it sounded better after the change).
  • It had the effect of removing those waveform peaks, and hence let the compressor work more smoothly and musically (see the ‘after’ waveform below)…

mix-issues-prevention-rather-than-cure-4

Ultimately, a simple changing of MIDI velocity fixed the problem, and was far easier to implement than extra layers of limiting and compression would have been (and also avoided the additional side-effects that limiting and compression could have introduced).

Clips of the ‘before’ and ‘after’ full mix are below…

Before

After

The interesting take-home from this experience, was to always think a bit ‘out of the box’ with regard to mix problems… to consider whether there’s a simple preventative measure that could avoid or correct the problem in the first instance.  In 99% of cases, as the pro producers advise, such a prevention is probably going to be easier and more effective than the equivalent cure.

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